K Sizes

Warning

Since the release of Beta 14 on the 1st of October 2020. All the below data is outdated and obsolete. It only serve as historical data. One exception is the final .plot size of k values. To get some insight into the new features of the plotter check out this post in the Discussions forum.

k=32 is now the minimum plot size that will be eligible for mainnet at the end of the year. More here.

The 1.0.4 release changes almost all of the information below for the better. This blog post is a good overview until we can update this.

Storage requirements

K-sizeTemp. SizeFinal Size
K=32239 GiB (256.6 GB)101.4 GiB (108.9 GB)
K=33512 GiB (550 GB)208.8 GiB (224.2 GB)
K=341041 GiB (1118 GB)429.8 GiB (461.5 GB)
K=352175 GiB (2335 GB)884.1 GiB (949.3 GB)

When planning on how much plotting space is required, only calculate the temporary disk size requirement.

When stagger plotting, disk size requirement may change depending on which Phase the plotting is at.

Plots larger than k=32

There was an oversight in Beta 14. For plots larger than k=32 the default buffer will not be enough to complete a plot. For k=33 a -b 3077 is the absolute minimum needed with the rest of the defaults. A -b 3139 will have better results by completing far more sorts in memory. More recommendations for 34-36 coming soon.

k=37

There has been at least one k=37 plotted using the Beta 17 plotter. It required 9.9 TiB of temp space, used 130TB of total IO, and took 404.5 hours (16.9 days.)

k=38

There has been at least one k=38 plotted on 1.0b18.dev831. Approximate working space used (without final file): 21547.738GiB Final file size 7657.460 GiB Total time = 3986304.072 seconds. (1107.3 hrs) 2/23/21

Beta 17 Data

i7-9700K Desktop Windows

  • Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-9700 CPU @ 3.60GHz 8 Cores
  • Memory: 16GiB
  • Motherboard: Asus ROG STRIX Z390-H Gaming
  • Storage: -t Sabrent Rocket 2TB SB-ROCKET-NVMe4-2TB
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization (phase 1)CPU Total-b settingVersionNote
34397.251,406.57429.880.3056228981176.478100%100%-b 12000 -u 128 -r 8b17
33181.17675.17208.830.309301735588.203100%100%-b 6000 -u 128 -r 8b17

i5-4690K Debian 10 Desktop

  • Processor: Intel i5-4690k (4 cores @ 3.9GHz)
  • Memory: 8GB DDR3 1600Mhz
  • Storage: 1TB Samsung 870 EVO SATA SSD
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersion
32162.1422.43101.30.2398269.326101%-e -b 4000 -r 21.1.1
33896.03208.80.2330588.227103%-e -b 4000 -r 21.1.1

Beta 14 Data

The following are data collected from plotting using the older and slower beta beta versions.

i9-9900 Gaming Desktop, Z390

  • Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM) i9-9900 CPU @ 3.10GHz (turbo up to 5GHz)
  • Memory: 2x 32GiB DIMM DDR4 2666MHz
  • Motherboard: Asus TUF Z390-PRO GAMING
  • Storage: -t Intel SSD DC P4600 Series, 3.2TB NVMe, first run on 750GB Optane P4800X
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization (phase 1)CPU Total-b settingVersionNote
3268.52248.12101.320.408345698286.57365%171.36%-b 4096 -u 128 -r 16b14single
32204.37596.60101.300.169795508286184.7128.6-b 5000 -u 128 -r 4b148 at once, 1.36 GiB/min total

mini ITX NAS build

  • Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-9600K CPU @ 4.20GHz
  • Memory: 2x 16GiB DIMM DDR4 Synchronous Unbuffered (Unregistered) 2667 MHz
  • Storage: -t Intel SSD DC P4600 Series, 3.2TB NVMe
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization (phase 1)CPU Total-b settingVersionNote
32130.12359.65101.360.282286.647172.71123.08-b 5000 -u 128 -r 4 -tb14running 5 in parallel
32155.28389.45101.3260.260286.58150.33116.86-b 5000 -u 128 -r 4 -tb14
32144.07378.38101.320.268286.573159.03119.24-b 5000 -u 128 -r 4 -tb14

Fedora Server 32

  • AMD Ryzen 7 3800x
  • 128 GB RAM
  • LVM Software RAID-0, 2x NVME Gigabyte Aorus 1TB
kPhase 1 F1/Total (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minworking (GiB)CPU Phase 1CPU Total-b-r-u-sVersion
324.36/89.80266.63101.3370.3800286.601220.730%140.130%26,700812810485761.14
324.33/84.82263.58101.4180.3800286.601308.550%166.400%5,00016128655361.14

Beta 8 thru Beta 13

These results from various machines should give a sense of how long and how much space a plot will take on different hardware. The first section is from Beta 1.8 or newer. Historical data is below and is currently still useful at the Beta 1.8 stage. Please add yours here or post the details in the #testnet channel of the Keybase Chat. The theory and process of plotting are described in the Chia Proof of Space Construction document.

estimated space = 0.762 * k * 2^k bytes

kspace GiBtemp GiBspace GBtemp GB
285.3332.005.7334.36
2911.0566.2911.8671.18
3022.86137.1624.55147.27
3147.24283.4650.73304.37
3297.54585.22104.73628.37
33201.171207.01216.001296.01
34414.532487.17445.102670.58
35853.445120.64916.375498.25

AWS EC2 r5d.8xlarge – Pre release Beta 12

  • Processor: 32 Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8259CL CPU @ 2.50GHz
  • Memory: 256GiB
  • Storage: tempdir: Amazon.com, Inc. NVMe SSD (Ubuntu 20.04) finaldir: Amazon.com, Inc. NVMe SSD
  • ~ – MB/s write
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
3084.9168.123.80.14267.398.11 %192 GiBpre 1.12
31178.1359.049.20.140135.095.52 %192 GiBpre 1.12
32399.5796.0101.20.127391.092.50 %192 GiBpre 1.12

Dell Inspiron Desktop

  • Intel Hexacore i5 8400
  • 8 GiB DDR4
  • Western Digital WD7500AYYS 750GB 7200 RPM
  • ~ write
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
321526.1284253.52101.30.024529100 %.default1.9Using Native Window Plotter, not WSL2

Dell Inspiron Desktop

  • Intel Hexacore i5 8400
  • 8 GiB DDR4
  • Toshiba dt01aca100 7200 RPM – 1TB Hard Drive
  • ~ write
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
321001.8652572.58101.30.039529100 %.default1.9Using Native Window Plotter, not WSL2

MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2019, Four Thunderbolt 3 ports)

  • 2.8 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i7
  • 16 GiB 2133 MHz LPDDR3
  • APPLE SSD AP1024M
  • ~ 2900 MB/s write
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
30149.91327.8323.790.0726125.9383.74%.default1.8

Ubuntu 19.04

  • Intel(R) Xeon(R) W-2155 CPU @ 3.30GHz (10 cores)
  • 64 GiB PC4-21300 DDR4-2666V-R REGISTERED ECC
  • Western Digital 4 TB WD10EZEX
  • ~ – MB/s write
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
2960.36128.911.520.089361.0081.77%.default1.8
30131.25302.823.820.0787126.0279.86%.default1.8
31333.50724.349.170.0679262.0470.66%.default1.8
32674.691577.7101.30.0642523.9363.74%.default1.8
331738.24285.56208.80.04871095.9152.53%default1.8

Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS

  • Intel(R) Xeon(R) E3-1270v6 CPU @ 3.80GHz (4 cores)
  • Samsung(R) M391A2K43BB1-CRC 32GB (2x16GB) PC4-19200 DDR4 2400Mhz ECC
  • Intel(R) P4510 NVMe SSD 1TB (2x1TB in RAID 1)
  • fio 1 MiB randwrite: ~800 MiB/s; fio 4 KiB randwrite: ~360 MiB/s
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
32352.47854.27101.360.1187641.6683.85%200001.11used cli -f -p
32343.18838.89101.380.1209621.7184.43%200001.10used cli -f -p
32378.90869.49101.370.1166524.0385.24%200001.9used cli -f -p

Razer Blade Stealth 2018

  • Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-8550U CPU @ 1.80GHz, 2001 Mhz, 4 Core(s), 8 Logical Processor(s)
  • 16 GiB RAM
  • Samsung SSD PM981 MZVLB512HAJQ
  • Crystal – CDM 5 Write Seq: 1468 MB/s
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
31278.5613.0949.1340.0801261.944100.0%default1.8

Intel Pentium CPU G4500 in WSL2 on ext4

  • Intel Pentium CPU G4500 @ 3.50Ghz – no AVX
  • 8 GB RAM
  • Samsung SSD 860 EVO 250GB
  • ? MB/s
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
30244.8540.5923.820.0441126.01483.62%default1.8

Intel Pentium CPU G4500 in Windows on NTFS

  • Intel Pentium CPU G4500 @ 3.50Ghz – no AVX
  • 8 GiB RAM
  • Samsung SSD 860 EVO 250GB
  • ? MB/s
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
30153.6359.6223.830.0663126.038100%default1.8

AWS EC2 r5dn.12xlarge

  • Processor: 48 Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8259CL CPU @ 2.50GHz
  • Memory: 374GiB
  • Storage: tempdir: ramdisk of 310GiB (Ubuntu 18.04) finaldir: Amazon.com, Inc. NVMe SSD
  • ~ – MB/s write
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
3081.50165.4923.800.14382125.9599.99%.64GiB1.8
31185.59361.6749.170.13595262.0499.99%.64GiB1.8

AWS EC2 i3en.large

  • Processor: 2 Intel(R) Xeon(R) Scalable (Skylake) processors with new Intel Advanced Vector Extension (AVX-512) instruction set @ 3.1 GHz
  • Memory: 16 GiB
  • Storage: 1 x 1,250 NVMe SSD
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
32576.301360.41101.3380.0745523.94679.19%.6GiB1.8

AWS EC2 i3.xlarge

  • Processor: 4 Intel(R) Xeon(R) E5-2686 v4 (Broadwell) CPU @ 2.30 GHZ
  • Memory: 30.5 GiB
  • Storage: 1 x 950 NVMe SSD
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
32616.781340.32101.3380.0742523.99790.96%.20GiB1.8

Raspberry Pi 4

  • Processor: Broadcom BCM2711, Quad core Cortex-A72 (ARM v8) 64-bit SoC @ 1.5GHz
  • Memory: 4 GB LPDDR4-3200 SDRAM
  • Storage: Samsung 860 EVO V-NAND SSD 1 TB (SATA to USB 3.0 connection)
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
30448.87919.5023.81510.0259125.99692.92%.2GiB1.8
31940.391958.2349.15960.0251262.00892.45%.2GiB1.8
321857.453954.88101.36800.0256524.01793.68%.2GiB1.8
321869.624311.85101.29900.0235523.85585.38%.2.5GiB1.9
  • Storage: Seagate Backup Plus 10 TB (USB 3.0 connection)
kPhase 1 (min)Plot time (min)Plot size (GiB)GiB/minuteworking (GiB)CPU Utilization-b settingVersionNote
321649.803677.30101.31800.0276532.69094.09%.1.8GiB1.10

Pre Beta 8

incorrectly listed as GB – most should be GiB

MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2019, Four Thunderbolt 3 ports)

  • 2.8 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i7
  • 16 GB 2133 MHz LPDDR3
  • APPLE SSD AP1024M
  • ~ 2900 MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
2611.61.2967.0691.86%
2730.12.69714.5183.04%
2882.15.5830.2769.4%some use
2917911.560.969.68%
30406.523.812871.67%in use
3037723.812873.18%machine idle
31856.749.16262.092.29%idle – last 80%

iMac (Retina 4K, 21.5-inch, 2017)

  • 3.4 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i5
  • 16 GB 2400 MHz DDR4
  • 1TB Fusion Drive (Actually attached USB 3.0 4Tb RAID 1)
  • ~ – MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU Utilization
254.10.623.497.85
26271.3
27812.7
282605.630.3
2978711.561

Ubuntu 19.04

  • Intel(R) Xeon(R) W-2155 CPU @ 3.30GHz (10 cores)
  • 64 GB PC4-21300 DDR4-2666V-R REGISTERED ECC
  • Western Digital 4 TB WD10EZEX
  • ~ – MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
2855.35.5830.399.56%
28435.5630.399.07%beta4
3030823.812883.78%
3027323.812875.44%beta4
3180549.126267.36%
3162149.126269.68%beta4
321,866101.454460.57%
334663.5208.81095.9752.2%
3410,865.6429.82,28750.13%
3525,703884.14672.239.45%

AWS EC2 r5.12xlarge

  • Processor: 48 Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8175M CPU @ 2.50GHz
  • Memory: 374GB
  • Storage: Memory tempfs (Ubuntu 19.10)
  • ~ – MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
3142549.1526299.99%alpha 1.3

AWS EC2 r5dn.12xlarge

  • Processor: 48 Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8259CL CPU @ 2.50GHz
  • Memory: 374GB
  • Storage: tempdir: ramdisk of 264GB (Ubuntu 18.04) finaldir: Amazon.com, Inc. NVMe SSD
  • ~ – MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)GB/minuteCPU UtilizationNote
2691.37.10.14499.99%pre-beta-1.5
27202.714.50.13599.99%pre-beta-1.5
2837.55.5730.20.14999.99%pre-beta-1.5
3020023.8128.10.11999.99%pre-beta-1.5
3141249.14262*0.11999.99%actual working 267GB, chiapos 0.12.13
31408.449.14262*0.12099.99%actual working 267GB, speedy branch

MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2017)

  • 2,8 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i7
  • 16 GB 2133 MHz LPDDR3
  • 251 GB (Flash Storage) Device Name: APPLE SSD SM0256L
  • ~ – MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
3055923.79217.9461.65%alpha 1.0
3061423.8127.99261.13%alpha 1.1

MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2017)

  • Processor: 2,8 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i7
  • Memory: 16 GB 2133 MHz LPDDR3
  • Storage: 1 TB (TOSHIBA HD)
  • ~ – MB/s write
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
30151223.838128.0527.59%alpha 1.0

Fedora Server 31

  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 5 3600 6-Core Processor
  • Memory: G-Skill 64 GB DDR4 3000MHz
  • Storage: GIGABYTE AORUS NVMe Gen4 SSD 1 TB
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
31571.549.15261.9971.17%beta 3.0 3 concurrent
32957101.36544.097.49%beta 3.0

Fedora Server 31

  • Processor: AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2950X
  • Memory: Corsair 128 GB DDR4 2133MHz
  • Storage: LVM-RAID0 (3 x Inland Performance Gen4 SSD 1 TB)
kplot time (minutes)plot size (GB)working (GB)CPU UtilizationNote
333093208.851096.0379.63%beta 3.0 2 concurrent

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